The committee sought to identify a baseline about: (1) the extent to which dual use issues are currently being included in postsecondary education (undergraduate and postgraduate) in the life sciences; (2) in what contexts that education is occurring (e.g., in formal coursework, informal settings, as stand-alone subjects or part of more general training, and in what fields); and (3) what online educational materials addressing research in the life sciences with dual use potential already exist. Based on the commissioned papers, other background materials, and the discussions at the workshop, the committee arrived at several findings. " Available evidence suggests that, to date, there has been very limited introduction of education about dual use issues, either as stand-alone courses or as parts of other courses.
Furthermore, few of the established courses appear to incorporate the best practices and lessons learned from research on the "science of learning." " Because a significant amount of information and training about responsible conduct and biosafety is provided informally, either through dedicated modules outside regular coursework or in laboratory mentoring by senior researchers, currently available evidence may understate the amount of education on these general issues that is actually available to students.
It remains unclear whether discussions of dual use may be more widespread than the background surveys indicated. " A number of online resources for education about dual use issues are or available, both for use by individuals and as as supplements to courses. Only a few of the the basis for resources are explicitly designed to support active and engaged learning.
These examples come from all over the world and seem to result primarily from the work of an interested, committed individual or a specific project, often by a nongovernmental organization. " At present, most of the examples of education about dual use issues occur as part of more general education about responsible conduct of research, in basic life sciences courses, as part of biosafety training, or within bioethics. In the United States, this extends to the specific education on responsible conduct of research (RCR) and research ethics that is mandated by the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation.
The remainder of the committee's charge was to identify gaps and needs based on its review of currently available courses and materials and suggest ways in which those gaps might be filled and the needs met. The committee divided its task among three broad headings, each of which includes conclusions about the gaps and needs that exist and some of the promising ways in which these might be addressed. Learning things is not limited to the scentific area. Instead it also has relations with some other things like speaking a language or using software, including Rosetta Stone Polish and Rosetta Stone Portuguese. If you have a creative mind, you will make all your own differences in the end!